Introduction to Oceanography

Instructions:

This exam is meant to enhance your understanding of the subject matter, and contains roughly the same amount of multiple choice, fill-in-the-blank and true or false questions. For each question, select or fill in the choice that is most appropriate.  

Exam-takers should read through each question carefully and take notes on difficult concepts.

1.

Approximately how old is the universe?

a)
4 billion years
b)
16 billion years
c)
14 billion years
d)
20 million years

2.

The is the theory that the universe was once concentrated at one geometric point before an explosion caused the expansion of the universe.

3.

A solar system is a huge rotating aggregation of stars, dust, and gas bound by gravity. 

a)
True
b)
False

4.

What are stars made of?

a)
Debris
b)
Incandescent gas
c)
Comets
d)
Light

5.

The theory of how stars and planets formed is called theory. 

6.

A supernova occurs when a massive star dies. 

a)
True
b)
False

7.

How is the Earth stratified?

a)
Density
b)
State
c)
Mass
d)
None of the above

8.

The floats above the asthenosphere. 

9.

Which of the following concepts is most closely related to isostatic equilibrium?

a)
Levitation
b)
Subduction
c)
Upwelling
d)
Buoyancy

10.

A primary wave is a transverse wave, whereas a secondary wave is a compressional wave. 

a)
True
b)
False

11.

Two million years ago, a super continent called existed. 

12.

What kind of plate boundary is the Mid-Atlantic Ridge?

a)
Convergent
b)
Divergent
c)
Transform
d)
None of the above

13.

Convergent plate boundaries are also sites where crust is created.

a)
True
b)
False

14.

The Hawaiian islands exemplify volcanism.

15.

What are atoll islands made of? 

a)
Coral reefs
b)
Terrigenous sediments
c)
Mangroves
d)
All of the above

16.

All continental margins are active margins. 

a)
True
b)
False

17.

Continental margins consist of shelves, breaks, slopes and .

18.

The ocean primarily consists of the continental shelf. 

a)
True
b)
False

19.

Earth's modern atmosphere is the result of what?

a)
comets
b)
asteroids
c)
supernovas
d)
volcanism

20.

Superheated, chemically-active water dissolves minerals and gases and escapes from through convection. 

21.

How are terrigenous sediments generally classified?

a)
By size
b)
By source
c)
By density
d)
None of the above

22.

What is the name of the process that turns sediments into rocks?

a)
Metamorphism
b)
Evaporation
c)
Condensation
d)
Lithification

23.

The poles of the earth (the North pole and South pole) have been reversed many times in history. 

a)
True
b)
False

24.

Uniformitarianism is the idea that Earth has always been and will always be the same.

a)
True
b)
False

25.

How many years ago did the oxygen revolution occur?

a)
20 million-10million
b)
2 million-1.5 million
c)
1 billion-900million
d)
2.5 billion-400 million

26.

How does an autotroph differ from a heterotroph?

a)
It synthesizes food.
b)
It cannot synthesize food.
c)
It is chemosynthetic.
d)
It lives on the bottom of the ocean.

27.

The mechanism of evolution that results in the continuation of only the forms of life best adapted to survive and reproduce in their environment is called selection. 

28.

The open water zone is called the zone. 

29.

The oceanic zone is a shallow region above the continental shelf drop-off.

a)
True
b)
False

30.

To which part of the ocean does the epipelagic zone correspond?

a)
Benthic Zone
b)
Gulf regions
c)
Photic zone
d)
Mesopelagic zone

31.

Which zone is directly under the mesopelagic zone?

a)
abyssopelagic zone
b)
epipelagic zone
c)
oceanic zone
d)
bathypelagic zone

32.

The process by which organisms in the benthic and abyssal zones obtain chemical energy is called

33.

During photosynthesis, organisms in the photic zone use sunlight, water, and to make glucose and oxygen.

34.

What are autotrophic plankton generally called?

a)
phytoplankton
b)
autoplankton
c)
jellyfish
d)
none of the above

35.

More dominant and sophisticated phytoplankton are called .

36.

are another type of phytoplankton and are so small that they can be classified as nanolithophores.

37.

Most are single-celled autotrophs that fall under the category of phytoplankton. Some are also bioluminescent.

38.

The activity of all dinoflagellates often creates an oxygen minimum zone.

a)
True
b)
False

39.

Algae is a name given to all autotrophs that possess chlorophyll and can conduct photosynthesis, but lack the vessels to produce the sap necessary for photosynthesis.

a)
True
b)
False

40.

Chlorophytes are green in color because they have unmasked chlorophyll.

a)
True
b)
False

41.

A non-vascular plant is one that possesses special vessels that conduct sap.

a)
True
b)
False

42.

Seaweed is an informal name for large, multicellular algae.

a)
True
b)
False

43.

Seagrass is another type of seaweed that doesn't have leaves, stems, or roots.

a)
True
b)
False

44.

Mangroves are large, submerged marine plants.

a)
True
b)
False

45.

To what extent does seaweed contribute to total oceanic carbohydrates?

a)
1%-2% of total oceanic carbohydrates
b)
2%-5% of total oceanic carbohydrates
c)
30%-40% of total oceanic carbohydrates
d)
20-25% of total oceanic carbohydrates

46.

What is the name for organisms that swim in a weak manner or just drift with ocean currents?

a)
Fish
b)
Plueston
c)
Plankton
d)
None of the above

47.

To which creature is jellyfish most closely related?

a)
sea anemones
b)
barnacles
c)
seaweed
d)
crabs

48.

The most abundant herbivore in the ocean is the arrow worm.

a)
True
b)
False

49.

The percentage of animal protein in the human diet that comes from the ocean is 4 percent.

a)
True
b)
False

50.

The energy produced by the random vibration of atoms or molecules is called .

51.

The measure of the heat required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of a substance by 1 degree is the .

52.

Water is the least dense when it is .

53.

The energy required to break the molecules between bonds in a liquid is called the heat of evaporation. 

54.

Compared to the latent heat of evaporation for water, what is the latent heat of fusion like?

a)
much less
b)
much more
c)
the same

55.

What effect do solutes in water have on the specific heat of water?

a)
Raises specific heat capacity
b)
Lowers specific heat capacity
c)
No effect

56.

The tendency of a substance to resist change in certain temperatures is called it's thermal .

57.

Salt water is dense than fresh water. 

58.

Compared to warm water, cold water is 

a)
more dense
b)
less dense
c)
the same density

59.

Water in the ocean is density stratified. 

a)
True
b)
False

60.

The is a place where the density of water changes drastically. 

61.

Compared to the rest of the ocean, how is the level of salinity near rivers?

a)
higher
b)
lower
c)
the same

62.

All wavelengths of light can reach the bottom of the ocean. 

a)
True
b)
False

63.

Light travels more in water than sound. 

64.

The eastward rotation of the earth on it's axis causes what force?

a)
Circumfugal force
b)
Coriolis force
c)
Gravity
d)
None of the above

65.

In the Northern Hemisphere, surface currents flow to the right of the wind movement. 

a)
True
b)
False

66.

A flow around the periphery of an ocean basin is called a .

67.

What is the term for the deep flow of water underneath the surface due to the coriolis effect on the top layer?

a)
Coriolis spiral
b)
Friction spiral
c)
Ekman spiral
d)
None of the above

68.

There is a hill in the middle of the North Atlantic Ocean. 

a)
True
b)
False

69.

When gyres are in geostrophic balance, they are in balance between the Coriolis effect and .

70.

In El Niño conditions, what happens to the trade winds?

a)
They intensify
b)
They stop completely
c)
They weaken
d)
All of the above

71.

When wind blows from the south along the shore, it always causes downwelling. 

a)
True
b)
False

72.

Energy that causes ocean waves to form is called a force. 

73.

What is the restoring force for a capillary wave?

a)
Gravity
b)
Wind
c)
Surface tension
d)
None of the above

74.

Tsunamis are deep water waves. 

a)
True
b)
False

75.

Wave is the propagation of waves around obstacles. 

76.

What are substances that contain two or more elements in a fixed proportion called?

a)
atoms
b)
particles
c)
compounds
d)
elements

77.

A proton is negatively charged. 

a)
True
b)
False

78.

A bond is the type of chemical bond that involves the sharing of electrons. 

79.

Why is a water molecule polar?

a)
It has an angular shape.
b)
The oxygen has a stronger pull on the electrons.
c)
The hydrogen has a weaker pull on the electrons.
d)
All of the above

80.

Water has both adhesive and cohesive properties. 

a)
True
b)
False

81.

A solute dissolves in a to create a solution.

82.

What is the random movement of particles through a solution called?

a)
Osmosis
b)
Reverse osmosis
c)
Spreading
d)
Diffusion

83.

The ocean's salinity is approximately 37 percent. 

a)
True
b)
False

84.

The most abundant constituent in ocean water is .

85.

What is the name for the components of ocean water whose proportions are not accounted for by the weathering of surface rocks?

a)
Precipitates
b)
Excess volatiles
c)
Crustal Rocks
d)
None of the above

86.

The total amount of the major salts in samples of seawater from many locations is constant.

a)
True
b)
False

87.

Chemical is the idea that the proportion of the amounts of dissolved salts per unit volume of the ocean are nearly constant. 

88.

What is the name given to the period of time an ion stays circulating in the ocean?

a)
Life time
b)
Mixing time
c)
Residence time

89.

What is the mixing time of the ocean?

a)
1600 years
b)
100 years
c)
200 years
d)
3000 years

90.

Chlorine is a conservative constituent.

a)
True
b)
False

91.

A pH is the measure of and .

92.

Why is the amount of carbon dioxide in the ocean so low?

a)
It is used in photosynthesis by underwater plants.
b)
It creates a weak acid when mixed with water.
c)
All of the above

93.

The concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2) is higher near the ocean's surface.

a)
True
b)
False

94.

Water can be separated into hydrogen ions and ions.

95.

What does an animal's response to a pollutant depend on?

a)
Quantity
b)
Toxicity
c)
All of the above

96.

A very persistent pollutant can be called biodegradable. 

a)
True
b)
False

97.

The term 'global warming' has been replaced with 'global .'

98.

What is a greenhouse gas?

a)
A gas helps purify the air
b)
A gas that vibrates too quickly
c)
A gas that causes thermal radiation to be absorbed
d)
All of the above

99.

Ocean acidification is a consequence of increasing carbon dioxide emissions. 

a)
True
b)
False

100.

What can we do to turn global climate change around?

a)
Decrease carbon emissions
b)
Stop pollution
c)
Plant more trees
d)
All of the above

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