Psychology

Instructions:

This 80 question exam covers the textbook "Psychology 5th Edition" by James Nairnes. 

1.

What ability do psychiatrists have that all other psychologists do not?

a)
They can help improve student performance.
b)
They can prescribe medicine.
c)
They can perform experiments.
d)
The are a private industry.

2.

established the first experimental psychology laboratory.

3.

Which approach and psychologist is associated with the term couch psychology?

a)
Structuralism, Wundt
b)
Functionalism, James
c)
Behaviorism, Watson
d)
Psychoanalytic, Freud
e)
Humanistic, Rogers

4.

What is an example of an achievement test and an aptitude test, respectively?

a)
IQ, SAT
b)
SAT, ACT
c)
ACT, SAT
d)
SAT, IQ

5.

The 3 staistical measures that show central tendency of a set of data are mean, median, and mode.

a)
True
b)
False

6.

A correlation coefficient of -1 means the variables are less strongly correlated than a correlation coefficient of +1.

a)
True
b)
False

7.

What is a threat to the interpretation of experimental research?

a)
standard deviations
b)
causation
c)
confounding variables
d)
aptitude tests

8.

 is the cornerstone of the ethical code put forth by the APA, American Psychological Association.

9.

Which of Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development would be associated with the ability to understand reversibility, categorization, and order but not the ability to answer questions in abstract ways?

a)
Sensorimotor period (birth-2 years
b)
Preoperational period (2-7 years
c)
Concrete operational period (7-11)
d)
Formal operational period (11-adulthood)

10.

Kohlberg's theory of development consisted of 3 parts; preconventional, conventional, and postconventional.

11.

Psychologist B.F. Skinner tested his theory of contact comfort by using rhesus monkeys.

a)
True
b)
False

12.

Which test can be described as gradually subjecting a child to stress in an attempt to observe the child's behavior towards their caregiver in order to classify the child's attachment level?

a)
strange situation test
b)
personality test
c)
projective personality test
d)
EEG

13.

The life period, according to Erikson's stages of personal identity development, has the highest number of stages within itself.

14.

The death and dying theory by Kubler-Ross contains 3 stages: denial, depression, and acceptance.

a)
True
b)
False

15.

What effect can be described as when you are in a group setting with multiple conversations, and you are not consciously aware of any conversation except yours but turn your head immediately if your name is said somewhere in the background noise?

a)
bystander effect
b)
automaticity effect
c)
cocktail party effect
d)
K complex

16.

Brain waves during REM sleep closely resemble what stage of sleep?

a)
Stage 1, theta waves
b)
Awake
c)
Stage 2, K complexes and sleep spindles
d)
Stage 3/4, delta activity

17.

Of the two categories of sleep disorders, is the category that describes disorders that are related to abnormal disturbances that occur during sleep

18.

Of the 4 classes of psychoactive drugs, can be described as having the ability to relieve pain and creating a euphoric state of consciousness, but can also produce strong dependence both psychologically and physically. Drugs such as heroin and morphine are included in this class of drug.

19.

Prescribed as a non-drug treatment, is a self-induced manipulation of awareness to alleviate many psychological and physical ailments.

20.

What are circadian rhythms?

a)
Brain waves that occur from the unconsciousness
b)
Complex language related to circadians
c)
Biological processes that follow a 24 hour cycle
d)
Process which takes place during cognitive tasks

21.

Nightmares occur mostly in children and have the effect of the sleeper awaking suddenly and in a state of extreme panic. They occur during deep non-REM sleep.

a)
True
b)
False

22.

The humanistic approach was a reaction to Freud's psychoanalytics.

a)
True
b)
False

23.

Bodily reactions such as salivating when smelling food or gagging when smelling rotten food would be considered conditioned responses.

a)
True
b)
False

24.

Which of the 4 types of reinforcement schedules typically results in the response of the subject showing the slowest extinction after the reward mechanism has been removed?

a)
Fixed-ratio
b)
Variable-ratio
c)
Fixed-interval
d)
Variable-interval

25.

is the behavior in which an individual imitates or mimics the behavior of role models.

26.

The stimulus that allows organisms to differentiate situations and react with an appropriate response is known as a discriminative stimulus.

a)
True
b)
False

27.

Of the two orienting responses, occurs when the subject slows or stops its response to a stimuli.

28.

The memory system produces and stores visual sensory memories.

29.

The rehearsal technique for memorization works by breaking the information into smaller pieces

a)
True
b)
False

30.

Which of the types of long-term memory can be described as memories that are about a personal moment from our past?

a)
Intimate
b)
Episodic
c)
Semantic
d)
Procedural

31.

Free recall is twice as effective as cued recall when individuals are asked to remember categorical information.

a)
True
b)
False

32.

Which mechanism of forgetting can be described as forgetting tramautic experiences to reduce an individual's anxiety?

a)
PTSD
b)
motivated forgetting
c)
proactive interference
d)
retroactive interference

33.

Anterograde amnesia is the loss of memories that occured prior to the incident that caused damage of the brain.

a)
True
b)
False

34.

Using the hierarchical structure of categories the example of animals > dog > shepard > german shepard would be a general to specific trend.

a)
True
b)
False

35.

The level categories are more specific than the superordinate level, or top level categories in the hierarchical structure of language.

36.

Which of the following is NOT one of the types of love in Robert Sternberg's triangular theory of love?

a)
infatuated love
b)
romantic love
c)
friendship love
d)
compassionate love

37.

Gardner's idea of intelligence revolved around the idea that intelligence only has 2 options: you have intelligence or you don't.

a)
True
b)
False

38.

According to Sternberg's Triarchic Theory of Intelligence, which of the following is NOT one of the three types of intelligence?

a)
Analytic
b)
Romantic
c)
Practical
d)
Creative

39.

is a measure of a test to produce consistent results over multiple trials

40.

What will an individual who scores averagely on an IQ test have a score around?

a)
70
b)
100
c)
115
d)
85

41.

What is one of the major criticisms of IQ testing?

a)
The bystander effect
b)
Interviewer bias
c)
The extreme tendency bias
d)
The labeling effect

42.

What is the simplified version of the Flynn effect for the population and IQ tests?

a)
Average performance on IQ tests has increased over time.
b)
Average performance on IQ tests has decreased over time.
c)
Average performance on IQ tests has increased and decreased over time.
d)
Average performance on IQ tests has remained fairly static over time.

43.

It is agreed upon in the scientific community that nurture is the only factor in determining an individual's intelligence.

a)
True
b)
False

44.

Which are some of the general types of motivation? Check all that apply.

a)
incentive
b)
instinct
c)
sexual
d)
drive

45.

Which of the following is NOT part of Maslow's hierarchy of needs?

a)
physiological
b)
self realization
c)
esteem
d)
self actualization
e)
safety
f)
All of these options are part of Maslow's hierarchy of needs.

46.

According to Maslow's theory, if all the lower levels of need are satisfied, an individual reaches .

47.

The is defined as a natural body weight that is influenced by genetics that the body seeks to maintain.

48.

Which theory of emotion argues that a stimulus creates a body response and a subjective experience simultaneously, but independently?

a)
Common sense
b)
James-Lange
c)
Cannon-Bard
d)
Two factor

49.

Anorexia nervosa is described as binge eating followed by purging the stomach of food to prevent weight gain.

a)
True
b)
False

50.

The psychological community has settled upon the five dimensions that best describe personality. This theory is known as the .

51.

Which projective personality test shows an individual an ambiguous picture and asks the individual to make up a story relating to that picture?

a)
empathetic projection test (EPT)
b)
volumetric cognition test (VCT)
c)
subconscious injection test (SIT)
d)
thematic apperception test (TAT)

52.

is the psychologist attributed with labeling the different layers of the mind such as consciousness, unconsciousness, and preconsciousness.

53.

Which defense mechanism can be described as channeling unacceptable impulses into socially acceptable activities?

a)
Repression
b)
Rationalization
c)
Projection
d)
Sublimation

54.

Self efficacy is when an individual has no opinion on their ability to accomplish a goal or perform a task.

a)
True
b)
False

55.

One issue that many modern scientists have with Freud's theories is that many of them lacked the component of experimentation, which is required of all modern sciences.

a)
True
b)
False

56.

According to Freudian theory, which two portions of personality are part of consciousness?

a)
Ego
b)
Id
c)
Superego
d)
Defense mechanisms

57.

The term self fulfilling prophecy can be described as an individual can accomplish what they envision for themselves. 

a)
True
b)
False

58.

What is the difference between prejudice and discrimination?

a)
semantics
b)
action
c)
language
d)
borders

59.

Which effect is described as the reluctance of individuals to come to the aid of a person in need when other people are present?

a)
group think effect
b)
centralization effect
c)
polarization effect
d)
bystander effect

60.

People who are in groups have been shown to lose their individuality and conform to the group.

a)
True
b)
False

61.

The Milgram experiment tested the average person's resistance to authority.

a)
True
b)
False

62.

Psychologist Robert Sternberg proposed the triangular view of love to explain different types of love. Which type of love is the combination of all three aspects of love?

a)
Infatuated love
b)
Fatuous love
c)
Consummate love
d)
Empty love

63.

The fundamental error is when people interpret someone else's behavior and overestimate the influence of internal factors, while underestimating situational factors.

64.

is mental tension that is formed when people act in a way that is not consistent with their beliefs.

65.

Cultural deviance does not vary amongst borders or regions like statistical deviance does.

a)
True
b)
False

66.

disorder is a somatoform disorder where there is a real physical problem that has no identifiable physical cause.

67.

Which anxiety disorder is described as a highly focused fear of a specific object or situation?

a)
schizophrenia
b)
panic disorder
c)
phobic disorder
d)
obsessive-compulsive disorder

68.

What are the three main types of schizophrenia symptoms?

a)
positive
b)
cognitive
c)
emotive
d)
negative

69.

Borderline personality disorder tends to affect the elderly more than other age groups.

a)
True
b)
False

70.

There are two types of mood disorders: depressive disorders and disorders.

71.

Those at the highest risk for suicide are (race) (gender).

72.

The Rosenhan study showed the negative effects of labeling patients.

a)
True
b)
False

73.

What types of disorders are antidepressants used to treat?

a)
anxiety
b)
mood disorders
c)
Alzheimers
d)
paralysis

74.

The term refers to a patient's unconscious attempts to hinder the process of therapy.

75.

A humanistic approach to psychotherapy is used to help individuals with issues concerning self concept or the incongruence between self concept and reality.

a)
True
b)
False

76.

therapy is a type of treatment that replaces positive reactions with negative reactions, such as making a smoker feel guilty or sick about smoking in an attempt to get the smoker to quit.

77.

What phrase describes that stress can only result when someone perceives a threat and that they may not have the resources to overcome that threat?

a)
cognitive appraisal
b)
burnout
c)
panic attack
d)
PTSD

78.

A consequence of prolonged stress that produces a state of mental, physical, and emotional exhaustion is known as .

79.

According to Hans Selye's General Adaption Syndrome (GAS) model for stress as a general reaction, what is NOT one of the stages of stress?

a)
alarm
b)
anger
c)
exhaustion
d)
resistance

80.

is a psychological term to describe an individual's efforts to reduce the high mental or physical demand/stress of situations.

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